El nino và la nina là gì

     

El Niño và La Niña are climate patterns in the Pacific Ocean that can affect weatherworldwide.

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Warmer or colder than average ocean temperatures in one part of the world can influenceweather around the globe. Watch this Ocean Today video clip tosee how this works.


During normal conditions in the Pacific ocean, trade winds blow west alongthe equator, taking warm water from South America towards Asia. Lớn replace that warm water, coldwater rises from the depths — a process called upwelling.El Niño & La Niña are two opposing climate patterns that break these normal conditions.Scientists call these phenomena the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) cycle. El Niño & LaNiña can both have globalimpacts on weather, wildfires,ecosystems,and economies.Episodes of El Niño and La Niña typically last nine lớn 12 months, but can sometimes last foryears. El Niño và La Niña events occur every two to lớn seven years, on average, but they don’toccur on a regular schedule. Generally, El Niño occurs more frequently than La Niña.

El Niño

During El Niño, trade winds weaken. Warm water is pushed back east, toward the west coast of theAmericas.

El Niño means Little Boy, or Christ Child in Spanish. South American fishermen first noticedperiods of unusually warm water in the Pacific Ocean in the 1600s. The full name they used wasEl Niño de Navidad, because El Niño typically peaks around December.

El Niño can affectour weather significantly. The warmer waters cause the Pacific jet stream lớn move southof its neutral position. With this shift, areas in the northern U.S. Và Canada are dryer andwarmer than usual. But in the U.S. Gulf Coast & Southeast, these periods are wetter than usualand have increased flooding.

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El Niño causes the Pacific jet stream to move south và spread further east. During winter, this leads to lớn wetter conditions than usual in the Southern U.S. & warmer and drier conditions in the North.

El Niño also has a strong effect on marine life off the Pacific coast. During normalconditions, upwelling brings water from the depths to lớn the surface; this water is cold & nutrientrich. During El Niño, upwelling weakens or stops altogether. Without the nutrients from the deep,there are fewerphytoplankton off the coast. This affects fish that eat phytoplankton and, in turn, affectseverything that eats fish. The warmer waters can also bring tropical species, like yellowtail andalbacore tuna, into areas that are normally too cold.


La Niña

La Niña means Little Girl in Spanish. La Niña is also sometimes called El Viejo, anti-El Niño, orsimply "a cold event." La Niña has the opposite effect of El Niño. During La Niñaevents, trade winds are even stronger than usual, pushing more warm water toward Asia. Off thewest coast of the Americas, upwelling increases, bringing cold, nutrient-rich water to thesurface.

These cold waters in the Pacific push the jet stream northward. This tends lớn lead to drought inthe southern U.S. Và heavy rains & flooding in the Pacific Northwest and Canada. During a LaNiña year, winter temperatures are warmer than normal in the South và cooler than normal in theNorth. La Niña can also lead khổng lồ a moresevere hurricane season.

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La Niña causes the jet stream to move northward & to weaken over the eastern Pacific. During La Niña winters, the South sees warmer and drier conditions than usual. The North & Canada tend lớn be wetter và colder.

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During La Niña, waters off the Pacific coast are colder và contain more nutrients than usual.This environment supports more marine life và attracts more cold-water species, lượt thích squid andsalmon, to lớn places lượt thích the California coast.